- Background tothe Study
One of the most critical factors affecting the achievement of educational aims and objectives is deviant behaviour. The aims and objectives of education was to develop the domains of individual to meet the societal needs and the individual sustenance but the plaque of deviant behaviour among secondary students tend to betray these purposes. Deviant behavior can be seen as any behavioural patterns, actions or reactions that violate social orders, norms, cultures and values of the society. It is a behaviouralptterns that does not conform to the social orders or norms of a social system. Deviant behaviourcould be understood as behaviours, actions, reactions of a social actors which are contrary to the set rules and regulations of a school system. It constitutes all forms of crime and delinquency that is inimical to the social orders, values, cultures and traditions of a social system.among teenagers and young adult. They become deviance when they engage in activities which are neither the control of the school system in the society such as crime, disobedience, fighting, stealing, disrespect, lying, drugs abuse, rape, drunkenness, home prostitution, cultism, gambling, lateness to school, absenteeism, dishonesty. It also include examination malpractice, improper dressing, falsification of result, abortion, burglary, leaving the school compound before closing, noise making in class, bullying, arrogance, aggression, truancy, to mld be classified into moral personal legal safety and educational forms of deviance (Isangedighi 2007)
Deviant behaviors can be seen as any behavioral patterns, actions that violate social orders, norms, cultures and values of a society. it is a behaviours , actionsaction that does not conform to the societal orders or norms, it constitute all forms of crime and delinquency that is contrary to so. According to ibia (2012) deviant behaviour is explained in terms of attitudinal behaviours which is describe in educational institution “ inappropriate behavior”, “conduct disorder”, “ unhealthy behavior”, “ abnormal behavior” . However, any two schools are two different social groups with their social orders set down to suit the norms, cultures and traditions of the society in which they belong to.
It has been observed that deviant behaviour is mostly associated with teenagers and adolescent age within the school context during the course of interaction within and between the social actors of the school system. It is a topical issue in school system and a great concern not only to teachers and school administrators alone but also to guidance counselors, behaviouraltherapists, psychologists, educational sociologists, concern parents and government over a rapid and unprecedented upsurge of deviant behaviours in Nigerian society at large. The Nigerian Society today is developing hence it required an education system that will enable the youths to understand the society and cultural heritage. This will help in the preservation of the society and its culture and will also help in preparing citizens for a changing attitude, knowledge, skills, manpower and experience in the society. The education of the youths is very essential in order to ensure the confidence of the citizens to the social and economic development of the country as well as raising the standard of living generally. No wonder various school authorities have adopted different measures to curb deviant behaviour among students in schools. The measures adopted are Suspension, Expulsion, Manual labour, Public Assault, Guidance counseling cautioning, Withdrawal of privileges, and Deprivation of Right in school system. These measures vary from school to school and in accordance to the extent of deviance committed.
The Nigerian education system is expected to stimulate the spirit of patriotism and lay the solid foundation for national and international understanding and cooperation among our youths. Through education services, those deviant behaviour manifestations may be eradicated in schools by attempting to restructure the organization of the school, peer group, family religious institutions and all other primary organizations in the society. Among the possible contributing factors that may enhance growth of deviant behavior of secondary school students is a social media such as mobile phones usage, Facebook usage, WhatsApp, Home video films usage, Instagram, Twitter and Text messages. This social media has contributed to observable shift in the social order of any society like the secondary school system through social crime pictures such as violence, abortion, rape bullying, arrogance, gangsterism, gossiping, improper dressing, truancy, burglary, fighting, lying and glamorization of drugs which are posted on social media( Facebook, InstagramWhatsApp, Internet ,Pornographic sites). Anti-social behaviours are presented on internet in the lyrics of popular music and video films nowadays. These are made easy with mobile phones that have such facilities since society had come to a point where the idea of living without cell phone seems ludicrous.
Teenage students are the most prolific users of phone more than some oftheir parents. Some parents desired their children to have a cell phone for communication and security purposes but students took advantage of that by demanding the highest facilitated accessories cell phone to sustain either good or bad motives to interact with friends, neighbours and colleagues within and around his or her jurisdictions. These social networks of interactions have permeated across cultural groups, economic strata educational units and age cohorts.Teenagers and young adults spend a considerable portion of their daily activities interacting through social networking media. Confidentially, they unveiled their feelings without much pressure nor influence to loved ones, friends neighbours and colleagues and at the same way are exposed and addicted to negativebehavioural patterns such as cyber-bullying, indecent dressing, vulgarity of languages, online sexual crime, drug abuse, disrespect, dishonesty, stealing, fighting, arrogance, alcoholism, assaults, cultism, lying, aggression and falsification through global social networking of interaction where they exhibit thoughts, feelings, actions, reactions, motions, pictures, songs/ music which are inimical to school society. These global social network of interaction help to disseminate information, images, actions, reactions in a speeding retentive mode into the domains of thousand individual student not minding the negative effect accorded in students morally, psychologically, socially, physiologically, economically and academically. It is then the purview of criminologists, psychiatrists, psychologists and sociologists to study how these anti-behavioural patterns are created, how they change over time, how they are enforced and what modalities is required to minimize its tendencies. However, this study sought to investigate the relationship between social media and deviant behavior of secondary school students in AkwaIbom North-East Senatorial District –Nigeria.