Project Topics





1.0    Introduction

1.1   Background of Study

1.2   Statement of Problems

1.3   Research Objectives

1.4   Research Question

1.5   Research Hypothesis   

1.6   Scope of Study

1.7   Significance of study

1.8   Limitation of study

1.9   Definition of terms


2.0   Literature Review


3.0   Research methodology

3.1   Research Design

3.2   Population of study

3.3   Sampling Design and Procedure

3.4   Data Collection Instrument

3.5   Administration of Data Collection Instrument

3.6   Methods of data analysis


4.0   Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1   Data Presentation  

4.2   Test of Hypothesis 


5.0   Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3    Recommendation




1.0            Science In The Seventies

If a reasonable analysis is made of the whole periods in the history of science, the fact that science brought much innovation to mankind cannot be denied. Throughout the history of science, one could see attempts by scientists to exhaust all that are practicable as far as our world of reality is concerned. But these achievements of science have not been without problems.

Alexander Denis sees the problem as a turning point in those advancements of science. He traced back the foundation of scientific evolution and its social impact to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For instance, in the year 1905, Einstein came up with his theory that mass could be converted into energy. Within the camp of the scientists, some doubts were raised as to the possibility of this theory. But 40 years later, his theory was confirmed when Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by atomic bomb.

In the 1950s, scientists were bent on constructing nuclear weapons. Weapons of war became more sophisticated with an increasing hope that no one would be foolish enough to use them adversely. But unfortunately, as hopes were rising towards what science could offer as good, there was a corresponding increase in disillusionment. At this point, one stands to ask where mankind was going in the 1970s. This boils down to the fact that one-fifth of the world’s political manpower was (and is still) employed for military purposes. As this was foreseen as something more deadly than life giving, some moves were made to the imminent excesses. Many countries engaged in the formation of groups to arouse social and moral conscience among scientists, one of which was the British society for social responsibility in science. All these groups were put up because of the fact that a single misuse of science anywhere is likely to attract its own heavy repercussions. The extent to which these groups in different countries could go was immediately seen. They could not achieve much, and the reason was quite obvious: a country tries to out do the other in the production of weapons, at least for defence purposes. This situation leads to a kind of dominos effect. Alexander demonstrates this with the production of biological weapons.

If one country is going to attack the other with biological weapons, one needs to know how to defend oneself. And to defend oneself, one needs to know how the weapons work. And to know how they work, one equally needs to make them. Since the individual has known how to make them, even if he does not stock pile them, he can always make move if he wanted to1