Project Topics

THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE COVID-19 VACCINE IN TARABA STATE NIGERIA

THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE COVID-19 VACCINE IN TARABA STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to assess the impact of social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the level of impact social media has on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria, examined whether social media has influenced the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria positively or negatively, examined the various type of social media apps accessed in Taraba State Nigeria, and determined how often COVID-19 information is passed through the social media. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 77 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopted user and gratification theory, social responsibility theory and the Agenda Setting theory. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that the level of impact social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria is very high. Furthermore, social media influenced the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria positively. The study recommend that efficient use of social media in covid 19 information has proven to be effective. Hence, governments should adopt the use of social media in the use of covid 19 vaccination. More social media should be adequately regulated in regards to covid 19 vaccination information so as to positively influence the populace

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In the last few years, the social media phenomenon has become increasingly entertaining across the world. According to Bazley, (2016), social media is a type of online media that expedites conversation as opposed to traditional media, which delivers content but doesn’t allow readers viewers/listeners to participate in the creation or development of the content. There is a wide variety of social media ranging from social sharing sites such as YOUTUBE and Flicker through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Today, the world boasts of several emergent brand names that were practically unknown six to seven years ago Face book which was founded by a 26years old same years ago now has a following of over 300million that include Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari. Others are Twitter, Chatter, LinkedIn, Yammer to mention but few. Bozzi, (2013) posits that in addition to social networking sites like Face book the average man have access to blogging sites and could indeed, from the comfort of his home set up his own blog. The sheer ability to broadcast instantaneously without needing the series of a third party has been very liberating to many people. A good number of people have been very excited about the possibility of sharing their views, their lives, dislikes and indeed everything about them in the media. However, individuals are not the only ones tapping into the limitless possibilities of social networking sites (Bozzi, 2013). A number of corporate organizations are using social networks to publicize production, services and even deploy promotional activities. The social media has also been used to disseminate information concerning important information of which an example is the Covid 19 vaccine.

The Covid-19 pandemic, which had a severe global impact, spurred the need for mitigation strategies to control the pandemic. The Corona virus illness (SARS-CoV-2) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 virus initially appeared in late 2019 in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and quickly became a global threat affecting nations worldwide. As of the 22nd of December, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in about 76.2 million illnesses and over 1.6 million fatalities globally (Egbuniwe, 2020). Most nations across the globe use non-pharmaceutical treatments (NPIs) to prevent disease transmission, such as enforcing mask policies, hand cleanliness, social distance, travel restrictions, school closures, and partial or total lockdowns. So far, NPIs have been able to halt the course of the disease, but the most promising method for containing the pandemic and offering hope for lower death and morbidity rates remains within medical technology’s capabilities. Antiviral medicines and vaccinations are examples of such medical technology. They are effective, safe, and inexpensive (Egbuniwe, 2020).

A vaccine is a biological preparation that induces active acquired immunity against a specific infectious illness. A vaccination usually comprises an agent that looks like a disease-causing bacterium and is frequently produced from weakened or dead versions of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. Vaccines are one of the most dependable and cost-effective public health treatments ever developed, saving millions of lives each year. Following the deciphering of the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020 and the declaration of the pandemic by WHO in March 2020, scientists and pharmaceutical companies were racing against time in efforts to develop vaccines. As of October 2020, at least 85 vaccines were under preclinical development in animals, and 63 were in clinical development in humans, with 43 in phase I, 21 in phase II, and 18 in phase III. 6 were authorized for early or limited use in late September 2020, 2 were approved for full use, and one vaccine was abandoned. Remdesivir was authorized as an emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2020 for extremely sick hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, the WHO advised against its use on November 22, 2020, and later that month, Pfizer-(BNT162b2) BioNTech’s and Moderna’s (mRNA-1273) mRNA vaccines were authorized for use internationally (Kessler, Favin, & Mendez. 2011).

Although vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions and a cornerstone for the prevention of communicable infectious diseases, to ensure progress on Covid-19 vaccination, public acceptance is required to maintain herd immunity, prevent outbreaks of vaccine illnesses, and ensure individuals do not hesitate to adopt novel vaccines. While the development of COVID-19 vaccines has been an extraordinary success, vaccinating most of the global population is an enormous challenge, one for which gaining and maintaining public trust in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination will be as essential as the effectiveness of the vaccines themselves.

    1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

During the COVID-19 pandemic, people used multiple information resources to gain knowledge and health information about the disease, including television, radio, newspapers, social media, friends, co-workers, healthcare providers, scientists, governments, etc. Since such information sources can shape people’s acceptance or refusal of COVID-19 vaccines, it is crucial to disseminate transparent and accurate information about vaccines’ safety and efficacy to gain the trust of the population, especially the hesitant and skeptical ones (Egbuniwe, 2020). Hence, gaining an understanding of the resources that people trust the most to get information about COVID-19 vaccines is critical for the success of any future national vaccination campaign. As part of its efforts to combat misinformation and to encourage the masses to take the covid-19 vaccine, the NCDC periodically hosts daily press briefings to keep the press and the public up to date with its activities. This was also transmitted on the social media.

However, in an information age where everyone has access to information and misinformation on the media, several facts and myths about the Covid-19 vaccine have been shared both on the social media and on the traditional media, thus arousing doubts, anxiety and hesitancy among the public about whether to take or not to take the vaccine. The biggest concern of the World Health Organization is the herd communities as well as the rural locales (Egbuniwe, 2020). Since social media is mostly used by those in urban areas, hence the dire need to make it accessible in public sensitization as well as educate presenters on the need to encourage rural communities to take the covid-19 vaccine.

    1. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROBLEM

The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria. Other aims of this study are:

  1. To know the level of impact social media has on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria

  2. To find out whether social media has influenced the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria positively or negatively.

  3. To examine various type of social media apps accessed in Taraba State Nigeria.

  4. To know how often COVID-19 information is passed through the social media

    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be answered in this study.

  1. What is the level of impact social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria?

  2. Has social media influenced the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria positively or negatively?

  3. What are the various type of social media apps accessed in Taraba State Nigeria?

  4. How often is COVID-19 information is passed through the social media?

    1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria.. This study will be beneficial to the society as the impact and usefulness of social media will be shown. The study would go further in helping researchers with more information on the impact of social media in covid 19 vaccine administration in Nigeria. At the end of the study, this research work will be relevant in assisting the government to understand the level social media has influenced the acceptance of covid 19 vaccine and will also provide relevant materials for students and other researchers undertaking similar research.

    1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will be focusing on assessing the impact of social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria. Specifically, it will be focusing on knowing the level of impact social media has on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria, finding out whether social media has influenced the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria positively or negatively, examining the various type of social media apps accessed in Taraba State Nigeria and

knowing how often COVID-19 information is passed through the social media.

This study will be using residents of Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State as enrolled participants for the survey.

    1. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will be limited to assessing the impact of social media on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria. This study will further be limited to knowing the level of impact social media has on the acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria, finding out whether social media has influenced the acceptance of covid-19 vaccine in Taraba State Nigeria positively or negatively, examining the various type of social media apps accessed in Taraba State Nigeria and

knowing how often COVID-19 information is passed through the social media.

This study will be using residents of Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State as enrolled participants for the survey thus this will be serving as a limitation to this study as the findings of this study cannot be used any where else until further research is carried out.

    1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Impact: a marked effect or influence

Acceptance: the action of consenting to receive or undertake something offered.

Vaccine: A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.