Project Topics

THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PARTY POLITICS

ABSTRACT

The project is specifically carried out the problem of party system formation on Nigeria Democracy, the problem of ethnicity and region, the impact of parties formation in Nigeria. The role of political parties in Nigeria republic. However content analysis was adopted to capture the problem of part system formation in Nigeria. Finding was based on fact finding from journals, news, papers, magazine, seminar presentation and textbooks e.t.c conclusion and recommendation was made on the basis of the findings on impact of party system formation on Nigeria Democracy. In conclusion, the key to the success of stable and democracy is the sincerely and dedication of political actors.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Like most of the developing heterogeneous and multi ethnic socialist, Nigeria a plural society has been faced with problems of instituting a stable and democratically elected form of government, despite attempt made by previous administration towards getting this situation now a common trend in third world countries curbed.

Prior to the attainment of independence in 1960 the struggle was between the national list leaders and the colonial masters, which was aimed at the liberation of Nigeria from colonial dominance. Within this period, the issued of power sharing based on the grounds of segmental cleavages (ethnic) remained a silent feature.

At independence in 1960, Nigeria inherited a weak social political structure, a defective and unbalanced federation indigenous ethos of government and culture and above all, an inexperienced leadership. Most of the apparatuses of state ( a civil service not primarily geared to development, a police force alienated from the interest of a ruling class and increasingly turn apart by regional sentiments and judiciary wedded to the protection of the interest of power elite could not met the aspiration of an emergent state. The parliamentary constitution did not contain adequate provision for socio-economic transformation and national integration. It encouraged regionalism. All major political parties, important instruments for social and political mobilization, were ethnically based the North/South conflicts, which has been husbanded by the British as part of their divide and rule tactic, that they negatively impacted on all political division the mode and manner, of political party formation in however, extensively related to the level of political stability in the society.

Political party formation in Nigeria has been base on, ethnic grounds.

The genesis of political party formation in Nigeria date for back to the early 1920s, with the introduction of electoral positions in the Nigeria Legislative council, Franchise was however granted to the inhabitants of Lagos and Calaban. This led to the formation of the Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNDP) in 1923, and subsequently in 1938, to the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM). Both parties could, however be properly called, following Thomas Hodglain, proto-parties’ their influence banely extended beyond the immediate environment of Ibadan and Lagos. Parties, properly so called, are formal organizations which compete through electoral process to control the personnel and politics of government and these in Nigeria were a product of the post Richardson constitution. The first of these to emerge was the National council of Nigeria and Cameron (NCNC), which was formed 1944 and 1947.

In 1984, the second major political party the Action Group (AG) emerged, an offshoot of the Yoruba culture Association Omo oduduwa, (Lit Association of the children of Oduduwa, the mythical ancestor of the Yorubas) started in London around 1945 by Obafemi Awolowo then a law students 1951 gave to the third and most influential party in the first republic. Northern people congress (NPC) like the Action Group (AG), it was also an offshoot of a cultural association, the jam Lyyan mutanen Arewa (JMA) clit, the association of people of the North. The JAM was formed in 1948 by the Northern intelligent who wanted a form within which the political changes taking place in the country could be discussed.

Beside the major political parties, were numerous other smaller political parties such as the North Elements progressive Union (NEPU), the United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC), United Nigeria Independence part (UNIP) Bornu Youth Movement (BYM) The Kano people party (KPP) and the Mid-west Democratic frount (MDF). These parties were highly localized based essentially on specific interest and whose main significance was that they provided avenues for the dominant parties, through alliance to extend their electoral reach into region outside their sphere of influence. Thus, for instance, the Action Group by entering into the alliance with the UMBC was able to reach into the North, while the NPC succeeded in extending its electoral appeal into the mid-west through its alliance with the MDF.

The three major political parties in Nigeria during the first republic were regionally and its influence in a specific regionally and ethnically oriented in nature, in the sense that each had influence, in specific region. The Northern peoples Congress (NPC) in the North, in the west, Action Group (AG) played dominant role and the National convention of Nigeria citizens NCNC, controlled the East.

There was therefore, no acceptable national political party to further the concept of unity and capable of nation building. However in fairness to the NCNC, it started off as a national political party, but ended up as a regional party.

Although, each of these political parties dominated its ethnic region, non was strong enough to single handedly form the government at the centre. The result was the continual reliance on coalition of parties with its inherent problems. Such as the case with the loose coalition of the NPC and the NCNC after the 1959 federal election, it should however be noted that because the two parties were not matching bed fellows, a great deal of mediocrity, which was as a result of undue compromise came into play. Efforts made towards making the southern political parties (NCNC) and AG, National parties could not succeed because of their attachment to a particular ethnic group.

There existed a close affinity between the political party system in operation within a society and the stability or instability of this democracy. This project, therefore, will focus on the impact of party system formation in Nigeria Democracy with the emphasis on the mode, manner and procedures upon which these parties were formed.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In an attempt to classify government and poltics in the pre-colonial Nigeira societies, Balogun (1993) makes us to understand that fortes and evans pritchard (1970) have in their own studies identified at least two type of political system in traditional African societies. These political system were classify into group A and group B. the group A consist of the societies with centralized political authority, administrative machinery and judicial institutions.

In such societies cleavages of wealth, privilege and status correspond to the distribution of power and authority. An example of the group A society is the Hausa-Fulani society. The group B is made up of the societies without centralized authority administrative machinery or specially constituted judicial institution. The history of Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba and Igbo society will be discuss here. In the history of Hausa/Fulani before the establishment of the Hausa-Fulani empire in the North, there existed what lord halley who was quoted by Aborishade (1985) that the Hausa had evolved a well established pattern of administration in the seven Hausa state otherwise called the Hausa Bakwai, but this old Hausa Kingdom did no long as a result of an Isamic revolution popularly called “Jihad” that took place in 1808. The political administration in the pre-colonial Hausa-Fulani. Society. The Emir was the political and spiritual head of the Emirate. Such, he was of the emirate as well as the head the religions activities. He governed emirate according to the Islamic law and culture. The scope of the Emirs government was very great as he was also responsible for the regulation of the economic life of his people. It was also the duty of the Emir to arrange for the defense of the emirate against internal and external aggression.

In Yoruba Kingdom the great ancestor of the Yoruba people was Oduduwa who it is believed migrated from Egypt. This great ancestor of the Yoruba people first settled at Ile-Ife and founded the Yoruba Kingdom. Oduduwa has seven sons who later become the rulers of the seven former Yoruba kingdom broke into fourteen (14) regard the Alafin of Oyo as their Overlord. But later come to regard both the Oni of Ife and the Alafin of Oyo as the spiritual heads of the Yoruba. In the pre-colonia Yoruba society, the Oba and his senior Chiefs constitue the executive arms of government.l It was this, body that takes all important decision and also implement such decision.

In Igbo society, the race is believed to have migrated from around the middle East. The nature of the Ibo society has made some scholar like Balogun and Okoli among others to describe it as stateless, acephalous and or republican society. This is because the Ibo society did not reconganized parament rules political authority was decentralization and share among institution like Ofo group, Ozo group and the Age group. In fact the Ibo society they existend what cold be decribed as village democracy. The main political unit among the Ibos was the family had one of his senior members as its Head (Ofo). A group of related families made up kindred. The various family head normally meet at a public square from time to time to discuss the affair of the village. As it was stated at the introduction, the essence of this part of study is to establish that, before the British colonial administration, the various ethnic groups in the present day Nigeira possessed some form of political and administrative system. Form the analysis of government and political in the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Ibo pre-colonial societies one will certainly agree that since some element of political system which in the words of Dahi (1963) include “power, rule and authority existed and more over since “goals, were pursued” (Balogun, OP cit). one could then say without reservation that some system of government however rudimentary existed in the traditional societies even before the British colonial rule that led to the emergence of the modern system of government

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem discussed above have generated a number of practical consequences.

There is now a tendency to politicize everything in the local government, even in the case of insignificant issue.

This breeds a lot of disagreements and disunity, making it difficult for community to agree on crucial matters of development. Opposition member are often victimized while privileges and benefits are often extended to members of the ruling party.

As a direct or indirect consequence of all these, there is a lot of corruption in the local governments. As Nwankwo (1995: 158) asserts.

Part politics breeds corruption within the local government administration .

For example, the siting of important development projects are not often based on rational and objective criteria such an important issues, because of party politics, is treated with laxity and neglect.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Clearly from content of this research work the aim and objective of the study among others is reveal the impact of party system formation on Nigeria democracy.

However the objective that the project is designed to achieve.

To ascertain property the impact of party formation on Nigeria democracy Especially the study intends to established the effects of the part system formation on Nigeria democracy.

The study also help to bring out the problem and system of political party formation in Nigeria

To determine how part activities will promote national development and national unity.

To know the influence of parties on the quality of leaders in Nigeria democracy Lastly proffer solution by way of recommendation on how part system formation can improve democracy in Nigeria.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work is aimed at funding solution to the problem of party system formation in Nigeria democracy. Most writers on Nigeria politics have highlighted certain factor as being impediment to the smooth operations of democracy in Nigeria. However, very little have been done, in terms of research toward drawing a close affinity between the mode of political party formation and political instability.

This research will also carryout analysis on the causes of democratic problem in Nigeria. The number of political associations and their behavior on the stability of Nigerian body politics we also be ascertained.

After taking into cognizance the factor that have bring attributed as being problematic to sustainable democracy in Nigeria, recommendation will be aimed at putting to a half the frequent formation and dissolution of political parties or so to say, the raid and unconstitutional changes of government will be arrived.

Thereby crating an enabling environment where democracy can strive. Intellectually, this project will broaden our herizonon politics part system act as a propelling force towards conducting further research on the significance of political party formation and its determing role in the stability or instability of political system.

Finally, it is commended to all those who are concerned are committed to national soci0-economic and political development, stability and peaceful existence of democratic and political development, stability and peaceful existence of democratic system which a research needs to verify.

1.5     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research project, however, will setback on a comparative analysis between the formation of political parties and party system on the second, third and fort republic respectively. The political events of the first republic will be briefly discussed, feature like ethnic behaviour of political elites, class interest e.t.c which has been an impediment to democratic stability in Nigeria will be brought into focus. This study shall cover kogi state.

In the cause of the study, certain impediments were observed. These includes uncompromising attitude of the respondent to response property to the question posed by the researchers for the purpose of generating the required data.

Financial constraint was also another or militating factors that has hindered extensive investigation to this study, shortage of funds for instance extensive had limited the number of times the researchers could visit information site for the required information.

Finally, inadequate material in the library for consultation.

These constraints hindered the efficiency and effectiveness of this research study.

1.6     RESEARCH QUESTION

Research question is defined as a tentative statement which a research need to verify

This research intends to verify the following questions.

What is the effect of party system formation on Nigeria democracy?

What are the factor militating against the party system formation in Nigeria democracy,

What type of politics system is suitable for Nigeria?

Does ethnic class interest constitute problem to Nigeria democracy?

To what extent can this prevailing problem be reduced?

1.7     ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work comprises of five chapters, chapter one contain background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, research question, organization of the study, definition of term.

Chapter two: deal with literature review and theoretical frame work, part system in Nigeria, type of political party in Nigeria,function of political party, party formation and democracy constitution regulation of party formation, political party under Obasanjo, political Bureau and political party under IBB comparism of party formation under both regime and Empirical problem and prospect of party system.

Chapter three deals with research methodology, research design, research population, sample size and method of data collection, administration of instrument, method of data analysis and problem of methodology

Chapter four deal with presentation of data and discussion of findings.

Chapter five deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms will be used from time to time in this study. For this reason, the definition will be given in relating to their meaning and how they are going to be used in this write-up.

Pluralist society, political instability transmission, ethnicity, party system e.t.c

A plural society: A plural society is a society divided by segmental in terms of religions, ideological, linguistic, regional, cultural, racial or ethnic in nature. A further characteristic is that the political parties interest group, media of communications schools and voluntary associations tend to be organized along the lines of segmental cleavages.

Political instability: in relation to this project on the characteristics possessed by a politically stable democratic regime and that it has a high probability of remaining democratic and that it has low level of actual and potential civil violence.

Transmission: oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English puts this terms the “change, from on conditions or set of circumstance to another” transmission in the content of the paper would be planed down specifically to democratic transition. This however, further begging or require the definition of democratic transmission.

Democratic transmission therefore, is said to be systematic process of change in the political institutions and process basedon the rules of democracy. Invariably in Nigeria situations upon which this project is centered focused on it means the transfer of the sect of power from the military to a constitutionally and democratic form of government.

Ethnicity: This is a common and sensitive term that has continually featured in the work of contemporary writers on Nigeria more or else on African political issues. It is factor that has emphatically being attributed as a stumbling block in smooth operation of democracy in our society.

Majority of state today comprises of people from different ethnic groups. Nigeria has about 2.50 ethnics groups. An ethnic group can be regarded as a collection of tribes of people having common culture, history, language, and ancestral origin and inhabit a particular geographical area of a society even though they travel out to other area. Ethnicity therefore is defined, as an individual or group of behaviour base on ethnic group differentiation usually in a competitive situation in the process of these interactions the members of particular ethnic group perceive themselves as “us and see others as them.